# Use `incr`

to avoid initialisation

Incrementing an undefined variable will act like the variable was a zero. So an initial `set x 1`

can be replaced with `incr x`

, or an initial `set x 0`

can be removed entirely. Same with similar functions like `append`

and `lappend`

.

# Looping

`time`

can be used to repeat a block `n`

times. `while`

loops until a condition is true, if the condition is simple enough, you can escape it rather than use `{}`

to save a byte. `for`

loops are always longer than `while`

s. `foreach`

s can be replaced with `lmap`

s.

```
set n 5;while \$n {incr x $n;incr n -1}
set n 5;time {incr x $n;incr n -1} $n
```

# Nest statements

`[]`

s can be used to recursively evaluate an expression, returning the value. So try to nest those `incr`

s and `set`

s when you can.

```
incr x
time {set x [expr $x*[incr n]]} 5
```

# Use numeric variables as variable variables

You can use anything as a variable name, even numbers, which can then be sourced from other variables. This are called variable variables in other languages like PHP, and can mostly be used as a source of unique uninitialised variables in loops.

```
# Generates squares
time {time {incr $x $x} [incr x];try puts\ $$x} 9
```

# Construct expressions without evaluating them

You can assign mathematical expressions as strings to variables without evaluating them, to be evaluated later explicitly or as a condition for `if`

and `while`

statements. If you know the structure of the expression, you can even manipulate them with higher precedence operators.

```
set x 2+3
puts [expr $x*0]
puts [expr 0*$x]
```